Gustav Klimt - Biography and Works

Mosaic Workshop / Gustav Klimt - Biography and Works
Gustav Klimt was born in Baumgarten, a suburb of Vienna July 14, 1862 in the family of the artist-engraver and goldsmith Ernest Klimt. Gustav was the second of seven children - three boys and four girls. Klimt's father was a native of Bohemia and engraver of gold, mother, Anna Klimt, née Finster, tried but failed to become a musician. Most of his childhood spent in poverty Klimt, as the economic situation in the country was difficult, and his parents did not have a permanent job. All three sons Ernest Klimt become artists.

Gustav first time learned to draw from his father, and then in 1876 - the Viennese artistic apprenticeship at the Austrian Museum of Art and Industry (teachers Grahovina Carl Ludwig Minnigerode, Michael Reeser), in which in 1877 also joined his brother Ernst. Gustav Klimt studied there until 1883 and specialized in architectural painting. Model for him in this period was the historical genre painter Hans Makart. Unlike many other young artists, Klimt accepted the principles of conservative academic education. Since 1880 Gustav, his brother Ernst and their friend, the painter Franz Match worked together frescoes theaters in Reichenberg, Rijeka and Karlovy Vary (cities Austro-Hungarian province). In 1885, they worked on the design of the Viennese building "Burgtheater" and the Kunsthistorisches Museum. In 1888, Klimt received the award from the Emperor Franz Joseph - "Golden Cross" for his services to art. He also became an honorary member of Munich and the University of Vienna.

In 1892, father and brother Ernst died, and Gustav bear the financial responsibility for the family. Furthermore, these events have left their mark on his artistic vision, and soon he began to develop a deeply personal style. In the early 1890s, the artist meets Emily FLEG, which, despite his relationship with other women who remained his companion until the end of days.

In 1897, Klimt became one of the founders and president of the Vienna Secession and the magazine «Ver Sacrum» (Rite of Spring), published by the group. He remained in the group until 1908. Secession was originally goals device exhibitions for young artists, writing in an unusual style, attracting the best works of foreign artists in Vienna, and the promotion of the work of the members by the publication of the magazine. The group was manifest, and she did not try to develop a common style: it coexisted Naturalists, Realists and Symbolists. The government supported their efforts and delivered them a lease of city land for the construction of the exhibition hall. The symbol of the group was Pallas Athena, a symbol of justice, wisdom and art.

















Since the early 1890s, Klimt year vacationing with his family on Lake Attersee FLEG and wrote a lot of scenery. Landscape painting was the only non-figurative painting, interested Klimt. The style of Klimt's landscapes are like him the figures, they contain the same design elements. Attersee landscape so well embedded in a plane blade that sometimes suggest that Klimt saw them through a telescope.

In 1894, Klimt was commissioned to create three paintings to decorate the ceiling of the main building of the University of Vienna . Picture "philosophy", "Medicine" and "Law" was completed by 1900. They sharply criticized for the subject, which was called "pornographic". Klimt had transformed traditional allegory and symbols in a new language, with great emphasis on eroticism, and therefore more annoying conservative viewers. Dissatisfaction expressed all circles - political, aesthetic, and religious. As a result, the picture was not on display in the main building of the university. It was the last public inquiry, which the artist has agreed to perform. After that, the picture acquired private collectors, and when Germany 1930 annexed Austria, the Nazi state has assigned them. At the end of the war, these were transferred to the castle Immerhof, but in 1945, this area includes the allied forces and the retreating SS troops set fire to the castle. Paintings were lost. Everything that is there - is fragmented preliminary sketches, poor black and white pictures of three paintings and one color photo Gigei of "medicine." Her sparkling gold and red colors give an idea of ​​how powerful these three looked lost art.

paintings "Naked Truth" (1899) Klimt continued challenge to the public. Nude redhead woman holds the mirror of truth, on which a quote from Schiller: "If you can not thine own and your art to please everyone, to please a few. Like many - evil ».

Klimt knew how to cater to a thriving Jewish citizens of Vienna, who supported the "Secession". He painted portraits of their wives, giving them immense charm and a certain patina of arrogance. However Klimt not only followed the requirements of the customer, he seemed to get rid of all the restrictions and wrote as like.

It was the Klimt I loved Vienna, Klimt, captivity, even the most conservative audience, reward her with a vengeance for the applause. Klimt kept this attractive style for patrons of Viennese high society. This was evident in his portrait of Sonja Knips and tenderness subsequent portraits "wives»:

















  Hertha Felshvani, Serena Lederer, Maria Henneberg and Frida Raydler.



Adele Bloch-Bauer (1881-1925). The daughter of director general of the Vienna bank union Moritz Bauer. Adele Bauer in 1899, being 18 years old, married to a much older age of Ferdinand Bloch. They belonged to the chosen layer of wealthy Jewish bourgeoisie period Fin de siecle (end of the century). The interior of Ferdinand and Adele Bloch-Bauer met painters, writers, and social democratic policies, such as Karl Renner and Julius Tandler. Adele Bloch-Bauer became the model for the four paintings of Gustav Klimt.

In 1902, Klimt finished the Beethoven Frieze for the 14th Secession exhibition. Freese was a part of the monument to the composer and also contained a monumental painted sculpture by Max Klinger. Freese was intended only for the show and was performed directly on the wall unstable materials. After the exhibition, the frieze was saved, but not exposed to more than 1986.

"Golden Age" of creativity Klimt marked positive reaction of criticism and is the most successful for Klimt. The name comes from the period of gilding used in many of the artist's works, beginning with the "Palace of Athens" (1898) and "Judith" (1901) , but his best known works of this period is" The Kiss »(1907-1908) . Gold background and symbolism close Byzantine mosaics date back to Venice and Ravenna, Klimt seen during a trip to Italy.

In 1908, the "Three-age women," and 15 other Klimt paintings on display at the show, and then they acquire the National Gallery of Modern Art in Rome. The canvas symbolizes the cycle of life, which is one of the central motifs of creativity Klimt. The juxtaposition of youth and old age, the artist expressed his stylistic contrasts and differences in the perception of reality. On one side of a young woman with a sleeping child in her arms - worldly Madonna herself immersed in a condition similar to sleep, passive, stylized, woven into ornamental background fabric. On the other hand the old woman shown in profile, in despair, covering his face. Thus, the contrast between the stylized image of a young woman and a naturalistic way the old woman takes on a symbolic meaning: the first phase of life brings with it endless possibilities and metamorphosis, the last - the continued consistency and conflict with reality.




Klimt led quite a simple life, working in their own homes, devoted all the time painting (including the Secession movement) and the family, and was not in good terms with other artists. He was famous enough to get a lot of private orders, and have the opportunity to choose from them something that was interesting to him. Like Rodin, Klimt used mythology and allegory to mask its deeply erotic nature, and his drawings often give a purely sexual interest in women. Typically, the model agreed to pose in any arbitrarily erotic positions, many of whom were prostitutes.

Klimt wrote little about his vision of art, or their methods. He did not keep a diary, and sent postcards FLEG. In the essay "Commentary on a non-existent self-portrait", he states: "I have never written a self-portrait. I'm much less interested in myself as a subject of painting than other people, above all women ... I have no big deal. I am an artist, writing day after day from morning to night ... Who wants to know something about me ... should carefully consider my pictures ».

Klimt met Emilie FLEG in the early 1890s, when her sister Helen married for Ernst, brother of the artist. After the death of Ernst Helen returned to her parents' house along with her daughter, which was appointed guardian of Gustav.

In 1904, three sisters FLEG fashion house founded and became the leading Viennese designer. Adapting Parisian fashion to local tastes and creating their own models, the sisters wore the most elegant - and rich - women in Austria. Klimt contributed to model FLEG and helped decorate the hall for demonstrations.

Emilie and Gustav gradually became inseparable - at least in the cases. Many biographers and experts doubt that they had an affair. Emilia was proud of her modernity, in his personal life no it was not a decree and Klimt seems treated her as an equal to him personality. They were so close that the last words of slain stroke Klimt were: "Send for Emily».

In 1911, Klimt's painting "The Life and Death" was awarded the prize at the World Exhibition in Rome . In 1915, his mother died.

February 6, 1918 by Gustav Klimt died in Vienna of pneumonia, moving in front of this stroke. He was buried in the cemetery Hietzing in Vienna. Many paintings were left unfinished.

The work of Gustav Klimt is a model of ambition and innovation and is very popular today, and he composed "Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer" (1907) at an auction in 2006 was sold for 135 million dollars., Thus becoming the most expensive painting in the world .


Supplies Wikipedia and site
www.klimt.ru

PS Mosaic Workshop ArtMosaik manufactured a series of copies of works by Austrian artist of genius. We started with his famous work "The Kiss."